MESA – Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration
Technical surgical sperm extraction with removal of a small amount of fluid from the epididymis.
PESA – Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration
Technique that captures the sperm through puncture of the epididymus and aspiration of fluid from it. Widely used in cases of patients with impaired sperm flow (eg vasectomy).
TESA – Testicular Sperm Aspiration
Intratesticular sperm retrieval technique by puncture and extraction of testicular material. Indicated in cases of complete absence of sperm in the ejaculate due to production deficiency.