The sperm DNA fragmentation test is a recent discovery that shows that male infertility and the presence of high levels of fragmentation is closely related to gestational failure. The test data has quite objective and clearly shown that morphologically normal spermatozoa and mobile may have high levels of DNA fragmentation. The cutoff established for sub-infertility is 20% for DNA fragmentation index. Values above this limit do not exclude the possibility of normal fertilization, embryo development and pregnancy to term but are associated with a significant reduction in pregnancy and about twice in abortions. Therefore, individuals with the examination of a normal semen analysis may be suffering from this disorder.
The DNA fragmentation can result from multiple factors, such as diet, drug use, high fever, elevated testicular temperature, pollution, smoking and advanced age. With the exception of age, exposure to these factors can be transient, with an improvement of DNA fragmentation with time.
The individual who has tested positive may benefit from treatment with antioxidants (vitamin C and E), antibiotics, and antiinflammatory prior to undergoing fertilization, or also undergo a testicular biopsy in which spermatozoa with or without low fragmentation index are found.