Currently there are technologies that permit the treatment of semen in HIV positive men, allowing the separation of spermatozoa from HIV and thus ensuring that the sample used is not contaminated. The seminal washing is indicated in the case of HIV serodiscordant couples. The technique consists in separating the spermatozoa from seminal fluid using a centrifuge and a specific separation medium. Since HIV is found in seminal fluid and sperm cells, but not in semen, by separating sperm from seminal fluid the risk of infection diminishes.
In cases where the woman is HIV+, intrauterine insemination eliminates the potential transmission of the virus to a partner. Currently, it is recommended the use of three antiretroviral drugs by the pregnant woman, which allows nearly all of them to reach an undetectable viral load, which means maximal viral suppression while reducing the risk of transmission to the fetus to less than 1%.